「养殖天地」关键的“一英尺”实现哺乳犊牛疾病的早期预防

  • 日期:07-26
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Immunization from the neck muscle or subcutaneous vaccine to change to vaccination in the nasal mucosa, the distance between the two different immunization sites is about 1 foot (about 30 cm). Therefore, this change in immunization sites is also referred to as "1 foot shift" by Western bovine clinical veterinarians. However, this simple "1 foot shift" has really exhausted more than 20 years of outstanding veterinary clinical veterinary scientists in the West!

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Benefits of nasal mucosal immunization

1. There are abundant capillaries and a large number of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues in the posterior submucosal nasal cavity, which has a very active immune response;

2. The antigen-induced immune response has a low threshold, a small amount of antigen, is not affected by digestive enzymes and does not cause immune tolerance;

3. The immune response is fast, and IgA is usually produced about 10-12 days after immunization.

4. Not only produces an immune response in the local tissue of the nasal mucosa, but also causes a systemic humoral immune response (via a common mucosal immune network);

5. Convenient, safe, stress-free, mimicking natural infection pathways and not interfered with maternal antibodies.

How's the effect?

xx以预防传染性牛鼻气管炎,感冒病毒3和牛呼吸道合胞病毒三联减毒疫苗(Inforce-3)为例:牛呼吸道合胞病毒攻击试验组(鼻粘膜免疫三联)在幼苗组和对照组(无鼻粘膜免疫三联疫苗组),实验组的初级泌乳小牛全部存活,而对照组的初级泌乳小牛全部死亡。此外,在同一研究中证实,实验组新生儿泌乳犊牛的肺损伤显着减少,并且牛呼吸道合胞病毒的排出也显着减少。此外,实验组的初次泌乳还大大减少了由感染性牛支气管炎病毒和感冒病毒3引起的呼吸道疾病,并且这两种病毒的排出也大大减少。

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有关这种免疫的问题?

1.什么样的牛群需要用新生牦牛的鼻粘膜进行免疫?

对该组哺乳期牦牛常见疾病的干奶牛进行疫苗接种; 1-2个月大的哺乳期小牛患有更多的呼吸系统疾病;乳房牦牛腹泻更常见。

2.新生牦牛牦牛的鼻粘膜免疫产生什么抗体?它的主要作用是什么?它可以持续多久?

得到的抗体是IgA; IgA的主要作用是防止病原微生物粘附在鼻粘膜上皮细胞表面;与全身性疫苗接种不同,IgA通过鼻内粘膜免疫产生持续约63-105天。因此,我们一定不能永远这样做!

如果你正在加强,你可以使用不同的疫苗吗?

与经典的免疫原理一样,不要使用不同类型的疫苗或使用不同的免疫途径加强免疫(激活免疫记忆系统功能)!如果首次使用鼻粘膜,则在加强免疫时必须使用相同的疫苗进行鼻粘膜免疫。

4. What is the current standard immunization schedule (also known as the new gold standard immunization process) for protecting newborn yak yak from environmental pathogenic microorganisms?

Nasal mucosa was immunized immediately after landing within 3 days after landing; nasal mucosal immunization (enhanced immunization) was performed with the same vaccine before and after 42 days of age; routine systemic immunization (muscle or subcutaneous injection) was performed before and after 4 months of age Related vaccines).

In this way, passive immunization can fully establish +2 times of timely nasal mucosal immunization + regular system immunization before and after 4 months of age, and other corresponding measures, we can basically effectively defend the health of vulnerable mammalian calves in this important developmental stage!

Specific operational details of the immunization

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Because the swing of the epithelial cilia and the epithelial mucus can affect the retention and absorption of the antigen, the antigen can only temporarily stay on the mucosal surface after entering the nasal cavity. Therefore, a special mucosal immune adjuvant is needed to increase the contact time between the antigen and the mucosal epithelial cells and avoid The effect of lytic enzymes. In addition, the tight junction between pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelial cells creates a physical barrier that also prevents efficient presentation of vaccine antigens. Understand the above, we must ensure that the vaccine liquid injected into the nostrils of the newborn lactating yak must have sufficient time to fully contact the nasal mucosa during the specific operation.

xx通常,鼻粘膜可以在新生牦牛出生时免疫,但必须除去鼻孔中的鼻液;它可以在着陆2-5天后完成。新生牦牛牦牛鼻腔的接种通常是冻干粉末,需要储存在2-7摄氏度,不能低温保存,高温和阳光直射可以降低其免疫效率。此类疫苗应使用制造商的稀释液稀释并彻底混合,必须在1小时内使用。因此,在实践中,它经常在新生儿泌乳小牛的鼻部免疫之前1小时内稀释并充分混合。为了使免疫产生所需的预防效果,稀释和混合的疫苗溶液必须与新生儿泌乳小牛的鼻粘膜有效接触。

在具体操作中,我们应该尝试修复新生牦牛的头部并保持鼻子稍微向上,使用无针可调剂量注射器吸收疫苗溶液,并放置约5厘米的专门鼻粘膜免疫设置结束。管(每次免疫后,你需要更换新的套管以避免交叉感染),然后慢慢地将1毫升疫苗液注入每个鼻孔的深部,然后在几秒钟后慢慢退出。头稍微向上倾斜,以使疫苗液有足够的时间充分接触和吸收鼻粘膜。

如果快速喷射疫苗液体,则表明免疫失败已经失败,并且需要改进操作程序,并且重复免疫一次。另外,避免将疫苗液注入肺部。如果发生过敏反应,可以通过常规注射肾上腺素来治疗。 6个月后,有必要重复鼻粘膜免疫一次,然后每年重复一次鼻粘膜免疫。未使用的疫苗溶液和使用过的肠衣必须彻底销毁,所用设备应彻底彻底消毒。

有哪些疫苗可用?

最近,美国已开发出多种用于新生牦牛牦牛的鼻粘膜疫苗接种,如下表和下图所示,以有效预防新生儿牦牛的呼吸道疾病和腹泻。

美国新生牦牛鼻粘膜免疫疫苗清单

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为了有效预防哺乳期小牛的早期呼吸道疾病和腹泻,鼻粘膜免疫无疑是另一种有效的手段,它是一种经验丰富的经验模型,具有多年的经验(干奶牛全身免疫和> 4个月大的小牛)接种)彼此平行以共同建立双层防御线,以保护泌乳小牛免受环境中的病原微生物的侵害。对于牛鼻粘膜免疫接种疫苗,有必要在短期内实际推广该领域的基础知识,同时引进国外新生儿牦牛牦牛鼻粘膜疫苗接种疫苗进行现场实验,观察是否验证有效。

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